Monday, January 20, 2020
The Importance of Family in McCullers' The Member of the Wedding "I don't need my mother or my father anymore. I am a teenager, who needs them? I can definitely live on my own." Carson McCullers wrote a novel, The Member of the Wedding (1946), which put a twelve-year-old girl, Frankie, in the situation of leaving her family and hometown. After last year, her best friend moved away and she was left alone. She used to be very popular and hung out in all of the clubhouses around town. Now, she was not invited to any of them. Frankie is also very jealous of her older brother and his fiancÃ © because they get to travel all over the world. At their wedding, she plans to go off with them, and explore the world as three. Her father's helper, Berenice Sadie Brown, who is an African-American, tries to explain why she needs to stay here with her father. Not listening, she packs her bags with all of her belongings, and waits for the wedding. The wedding is celebrated an hour away from her hometown, so they are going to travel on a train. Every night, she would think about the long train ride over, but knew in the end, she would be away from the awful town. John Henry, her six-year-old cousin, always follows her around everywhere that she goes. He told her that he was running away with her, where ever she decided to go. After realizing that her brother was not going to let her stay with them, she runs away into the night. J... ...d pretty much helped Frances change her mind as well. Now, all she wanted was to be with her father. Carson McCullers wrote an extraordinary novel called, The Member of the Wedding. This novel shows real life situations to a teenager's mind. Frankie hated the town she lived, and hated living with her father. She wanted to explore the world at the age of twelve. Finally, after all of the obstacles she went through, she realized that family is exactly what she needed in her life at that moment. Although some teenager may not understand, family is one of the most important things that anyone will ever have in their life. McCullers, Carson. The Member of the Wedding. Boston: Haughton Mifflin Company. 1973.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
Term Paper[pic] on IMC Analysis of Robi April 26, 2010 Principal of IMC Analysis on Advertisement Principal of Marketing(MKT-101) Prepare For: Kashfia Ahamed Lecturer Department of Business Administration Prepared By: Faqurel Hasan 2009-1-10-299 Arifur Rahman Khan. 2009-1-10-145 Sifat Ahsan 2009-1-10-062 Md. Shariful Islam 2009-1-10-154 Fayaz 2009-1-10-150 Letter of transmitter April 29,2010 Ms. Kashfia Ahamed Lecturer Department of Business Administration East West University 43,Mohakhali C/A,Dhaka-1212. Subject: Submission of report on IMC on Robi.Dear Madam, It is of great honor and delight to us to present you our term paper, prepared as a part of MKT 101 . When I do this job I feel me as a marketer it is a new experience to me and this paper will help me and also Robi. We are grateful to you for giving us the basic knowledge to prepare this kind of hard work. We wish we will get always support from you and you will also get development from us. On the behalf of the group Arifur Rahman KhanÃ¢â¬ ¦.. 2009-1-10-145 Acknowledgement: Firstly we would like to give thank to almighty allah.We believe that behind every success there is some inspiration and cop-operation of some special person who never appear in the picture but always provide support to make this term paper. secondly I would like to thank Ms kashfia Ahmed for giving us endless support . We work this promotional project in 5 ways ? Magazine ? Billboard ? Newspaper ? Radio ? Television Executive summery : Robi was Aktel and this company was started there journey on 1997. This is a 40:60 joint venture company . Bangladeshi TM and Singaporean telecom was the owner of this company.This company serve telecom services around Bangladesh . There technology is from Germany and there Cards are from China. This company holds the 235 of its telecom market of Bangladesh. Communication process for TV Advertisement: [pic] 1. Sender: Here Robi is giving the massage that they are changed as Aktel to Robi. 2. Encodin g: Robi is advertising them as a newer in market with latest tec 3. Message:This add provide the message that as sun is powerful we are also powerful with our technology. 4. Media: In this case robi is selecting this as a right media to reach them. 5.Decoding:Target consumer of this service will see this tv add and understand about this message. 6. Recever: All urban class people are our targeted customer who will understand this message. 7. Response:Targeted customer will understand that what we want to say to them. 8. Feedback:Finally when they show there responses to us and purchase this product then we will get our result. 9. Noise:Consumer may distract while watching this tv add. Communication process for Newspaper Advertisement: [pic] 1. Sender: Here Robi is giving the massage that they are changed as Aktel to Robi. . Encoding: Robi is advertising them as a newer in market with latest tec 3. Message:This add provide the message that as sun is powerful we are also powerful with our technology. 4. Media: In this case robi is selecting this as a right media to reach them. 5. Decoding:Target consumer of this service will see this Newspaper add and understand about this message. 6. Recever: All urban class people are our targeted customer who will understand this message. 7. Response:Targeted customer will understand that what we want to say to them. 8.Feedback:Finally when they show there responses to us and purchase this product then we will get our result. 9. Noise:Consumer may distract while watching this Newspaper add. Communication process for Magazine Advertisement: [pic] 1. Sender: Here Robi is giving the massage that they are changed as Aktel to Robi. 2. Encoding: Robi is advertising them as a newer in market . 3. Message:This add provide the message that as sun is powerful we are also powerful with our technology. 4. Media: In this case robi is selecting this as a right media to reach them. 5.Decoding:Target consumer of this service will see this Ma gazine add and understand about this message. 6. Recever: All urban class people are our targeted customer who will understand this message. 7. Response:Targeted customer will understand that what we want to say to them. 8. Feedback:Finally when they show there responses to us and purchase this product then we will get our result. 9. Noise:Consumer may distract while watching this Magazine add. Communication process for Billboard Advertisement: [pic] 1. Sender: Here Robi is giving the massage that they are changed as Aktel to Robi. . Encoding: Robi is advertising them as a newer in market . 3. Message:This add provide the message that as sun is powerful we are also powerful with our technology. 4. Media: In this case robi is selecting this as a right media to reach them. 5. Decoding:Target consumer of this service will see this Billboard add and understand about this message. 6. Recever: All urban class people are our targeted customer who will understand this message. 7. Response:T argeted customer will understand that what we want to say to them. 8.Feedback:Finally when they show there responses to us and purchase this product then we will get our result. 9. Noise:Consumer may distract while watching this Billboard add. Communication process for Radio Advertisement: [pic] 1. Sender: Here Robi is giving the massage that they are changed as Aktel to Robi. 2. Encoding: Robi is advertising them as a newer in market . 3. Message:This add provide the message that as sun is powerful we are also powerful with our technology. 4. Media: In this case robi is selecting this as a right media to reach them. . Decoding:Target consumer of this service will see this Radio add and understand about this message. 6. Recever: All urban class people are our targeted customer who will understand this message. 7. Response:Targeted customer will understand that what we want to say to them. 8. Feedback:Finally when they show there responses to us and purchase this product then we will get our result. 9. Noise:Consumer may distract while watching this Radio add. References: 1. MKT101 (Kotler). 2. Robi web sight. 3. Newspaper . 4. Magezine.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Have you ever been told to avoid the green part of some potatoes because theyre poisonous? Potatoes, and especially any green part of the plant, contain a toxic chemical called solanine. This glycoalkaloid poison is found in all members of the nightshade family of plants, not just potatoes. The chemical is a natural pesticide, so it protects the plants from insects. How toxic is solanine from potatoes? Which other plants contain solanine, what are the symptoms of solanine poisoning, and how many potatoes would you have to eat to get sick or die? Plants That Contain Solanine Deadly nightshade is the most lethal member of the plant family. The berries are a well-known classic poison. Many edible plants are related to deadly nightshade but they are not nearly so dangerous. They include: PotatoesPeppers (both sweet and hot)EggplantTomatoes (some reports indicate that tomatoes contain the alkaloid tomatine rather than solanine) All parts of the plant contain the compound, so theres a risk from eating too much of the leaves, tubers, or fruits. However, glycoalkaloid production increases in the presence of photosynthesis, so the green parts of the plants tend to contain the highest levels of the toxin. Solanine Toxicity Solanine is toxic if its ingested (eaten or in a drink). Toxic symptoms appear at doses of 2-5 mg/kg body weight, with lethal doses at 3-6 mg/kg body weight. Symptoms of Solanine Poisoning Solanine and related glycoalkaloids interact with mitochondria membranes, disrupting cell membranes, and inhibiting cholinesterase, leading to cell death and possibly causing birth defects (congenital spina bifida). The onset, type, and severity of the symptoms of exposure depend on an individuals sensitivity to the chemical and the dose. Symptoms may appear as quickly as 30 minutes after eating solanine-rich foods but usually occur eight to 12 hours after ingestion. Gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms are most noticeable. At low levels, symptoms include stomach cramps, nausea, burning throat, headache, dizziness, and diarrhea. Cardiac dysrhythmia, hallucinations, vision changes, slowed breathing, fever, jaundice, hypothermia, loss of sensation, dilated pupils, and death have all been reported. How Many Potatoes Does It Take? Basically, an adult would need to eat a lot of potatoes to get sick...usually. Solanine isnt the only toxic chemical found in potatoes. A related compound, chaconine, is also present. Potato shoots (eyes), leaves, and stems are higher in glycoalkaloids than potatoes, but green potatoes contain significantly higher amounts of the toxic compounds than non-green portions. In general, the solanine is concentrated in the potato skin (30 to 80 percent), so eating just the skin of the potato or its eyes would be more likely to cause a problem than eating the whole spud. Also, solanine levels vary according to potato variety and whether or not the plant was diseased. Potato blight, in particular, elevates toxin levels. Since there are so many factors, its difficult to put a number of how many potatoes is too many. Estimates on how many potatoes youd have to eat on average to get sick or die are around four and a half to five pounds of normal potatoes or two pounds of green potatoes. A large potato weighs roughly half a pound, so its reasonable to expect you could get sick from eating four potatoes. Protecting Yourself Against Solanine Poisoning Potatoes are nutritious and delicious, so you shouldnt avoid eating them just because the plant contains a natural defensive chemical. However, its best to avoid green-colored skin or potatoes that taste bitter (both signs of high solanine content). The National Institutes of Health advises people to avoid eating potatoes with green skin. Peeling green potatoes will remove most of the risk, although eating a few potato chips with green edges wont hurt an adult. Its recommended that green potatoes not be served to children since they weigh less and are more susceptible to the toxin. Neither children nor adults should eat potato plant leaves and stems. If you do experience the symptoms of solanine poisoning, contact your doctor or a poison control center. If you experience solanine poisoning, you can expect to experience symptoms for one to three days. Hospitalization may be required, depending on the level of exposure and severity of symptoms. Treatment typically includes replacing fluids and electrolytes from vomiting and diarrhea. Atropine may be given if there is significant bradycardia (slow heartbeat). Death is rare. Sources Friedman, M. Postharvest changes in glycoalkaloid content of potatoes. U.S. National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, 1999, Bethesda MD. Gao, Shi-Yong. Effect of solanine on the membrane potential of mitochondria in HepG2 cells and [Ca2]i in the cells. World Journal of Gastroenterology, Qiu-Juan Wang, Yu-Bin Ji, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, June 7, 2006. Potato plant poisoning - green tubers and sprouts. MedlinePlus, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, June 3, 2019. Tice, Ph.D. Raymond. Review of Toxicological Literature. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Integrated Laboratory Systems, February 1998, Research Triangle Park, NC.
Friday, December 27, 2019
JOMO KENYATTA UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE AND TECHNOLOGY Dealing with Stress and Ambiguity in Organizations Group Assignment STUDENTS NAME: 1. DANIEL NDERI- HD313-C006-3244/2012 2. PATRICK LIVONDOLO HD313-C006- 3243/2012 3. TIMOTHY NYAUCHO HD313-C006-3333/2012 COURSE INSTRUCTOR: Dr. NYONGESA PAUL UNIT: HR3102- ENTREPRENEURIAL BEHAVIOUR MSC ENTREPRENEURSHIP Ã¢â¬âJKUAT (KISII CAMPUS) TABLE OF CONTENTS Title Page i Table of contents ii 1.0 Introduction 1 2.0 Symptoms of Stress 2 3.0 Causes of Stress 3 4.0 Managing Stress 5 5.0 Role Ambiguity 8 6.0 Conclusion 10 ReferencesÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦* Cribbing, over-reacting, arguing, getting irritated, anxiety, etc. * Deteriorating health, more of accidents, etc. * Improper eating habits (over-eating or under-eating), excessive smoking and drinking, sleeplessness, etc. 3.0 Causes of Stress Stressors can be divided into those that arise from within an individual (internal), and those that are attributable to the environment (external). Internal conflicts, non-specific fears, fears of inadequacy, and guilt feelings are examples of stressors that do not depend on the environment. Internal sources of stress can arise from an individual s perceptions of an environmental threat, even if no such danger actually exists. Environmental stressors are external conditions beyond an individual s control. Bhagat (1983) has reported that work performance can be seriously impaired by external stressors. There are many aspects of organizational life that can become external stressors. These include issues of structure, management s use of authority, monotony, a lack of opportunity for advancement, excessive responsibilities, ambiguous demands, value conflicts, and unrealistic workloads. A person s non-working life (e.g., family, friends, health, and financial situations) can also contai n stressors that negatively impact job performance. This can be summarized as follows. i. 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Wednesday, December 18, 2019
In order for hospitals and other health care facilities to prevent the thousands of deaths and injuries that occur every year due to medical errors; health care systems were required to implement new record keeping technology. This technology has made patient information and treatment accessible to all who needed to see it. This is especially important when a patient has more than one attending physician and their care relies on each doctor knowing what the other one has done, serving as the prime communication tool between doctors. If organizations do not centralize their technology and essentially their patient databases, the potential for duplicate work or inefficient patient care can exponentially increase. These high tech medicalÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦These records make up part of the hospitalÃ¢â¬â¢s information system. Said information systems must be readily accessible and will include all necessary information including, human resources, financial information, and m ost importantly medical records. By updating a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s record and making it readily available to all health care providers, the information system allows a flow of information from one department to the other; without risking the loss of paper notes on the way (Pozgar 2007). A medical record has many essential roles within any health care organization; these records contain a plethora of medical information for the patient. Medical records are required to contain correct and precise information such as patient demographics (address, phone number, and age), any consent and authorization forms that the patient signed for treatment, family and patient medical history, and any diagnosis that is made using the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s medical history and their current health complaints. 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Tuesday, December 10, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Indigenous Education and Perspectives Aboriginal Culture. Answer: Primary School Age Children Introduction Ask one pupil to read from Australian Aboriginal Culture Resource Book the second chapter that discusses Australians indigenous cultural heritage and variances. Explain the section to the children based on your knowledge of numerous indigenous cultures and tribes throughout Australia and clearly illustrate to the pupils with a map that show sacred sites and varied cultures of people. Strategies Ensure total participation by every student. After reading the second chapter that discusses indigenous cultural heritage in Australia, ask the children open-ended questions to find out whether they have conceptualized what Australians native cultural heritage entails. Carry a collaborative social-cultural approach using the groups of four as laid down in the resources. Under this method, children will freely discuss the aspects of indigenous cultural heritage and differences in Australia. For example, different rights of passage, cultural beliefs, and norms. Encourage pupils to explore available options through program solving, questions and ethical dilemmas that explore tribal rights beliefs, norms attitudes, and manner of life. This will help students learn why particular gender is discriminated against the other, and rights to own Name of Experience Australians Indigenous Cultural Heritage Age group Kindergarten children aged between 3 to 5 years Description Group the class of children into groups of four children and design sufficient number of a board game that the children can use. Provide dice around each board such that children can pick up the cards of indigenous symbols. This dice game over the board also allows room for children to think about indigenous history, culture, and perspectives of different families. figure above shows indigenous Australians cultural heritage) Give a map to the primary age students that show sacred and significant objects in Australia. Present Australian map that demonstrates the location of various communities whose culture vary. Provide a pictorial representation of how indigenous communities in Australia keep their cultural heritage alive by passing arts, rituals, and knowledge from generation to other. Rationale Primary age students are anxious about learning the aspects of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultures that are diverse and complex. Students learn that indigenous cultural heritage in Australia gives an old history in the world. Students learn that aboriginal cultures of people have been able to survive for long and keep to changes over time due to people's desire to own cultural identity. Through the indigenous cultural heritage, children learn that aboriginal communities in Australia keep their cultural heritage viable through educating their children the arts, rituals, knowledge, and performances of the tribe. This is done from one generation to the next, and once students learn this, this will also share the art of cultural heritage with the rest of younger generation. The pupils can reflect back their learning about indigenous culture and where their cultural heritage originates since there is a pictorial representation showing sacred objects and sites of their originality. Resources Laminator, scissors, pencils, and glue Arrange four chairs around a table Australian Aboriginal Culture Resource Book Make small plastic Australian tribe peoples doing their ritual rites so that children can clearly identify variances in culture heritage. Pictorial books where the children can draw setups. Make graphic representations showing the sacred places where a given community went for worship. Provide cardboards with sufficient markers to mark the board. Make cards with images of indigenous Australian cultural symbols, beliefs, and attitudes. Prior to School Age Children Introduction Introduce dreaming stories of Australia by narrating different stories that form the history of various clans and tribes in the continent. Also, describe dreaming stories that portray the real picture of Australia with different tribes. Form groups of between 4 to 5 where the kids will form a group learning circle to exchange ideas on indigenous cultures and stories of origin. Ask those young children who understand their creation and origin stories to narrate to the other members of the group to form a basis for discussion Strategies Ask all children to participate through sharing ideas, discussing their inspirational stories, and appreciating those who already know something about their origin. Employ the strategy of asking open-ended questions about dreaming stories and indigenous cultures of people in Australia For example, who is superior to human beings and animals? Who created the world?. Carry out a holistic process of social-cultural approach where pre primary age students will discuss and gain knowledge about native animals, spirits, trees, and people(Logan, 2012). Through this method, children will know the relationship between dreaming and reality. Name of Experience Dreaming creation histories of Australia Age group Year 1 and 2 Children Description In the groups of four, an educator introduces narration of dreaming histories of various clans, tribes, and cultures of Australia. And how year 1 children utilize the creation stories to explain nature of land, people, plants, and spirits. Purchase a simplified atlas that show geographical features and the whole Australian continent map. Point out that all stories related to the creation of people, plants, and animals originate from numerous indigenous clans, with their beliefs, norms, languages, and customs(Battiste, 2011). Ensure that whenever you introduce narrating a new story to the primary students, you can pin its origin on the atlas and map. Group the baby care children into groups of 4-5 kids and discuss arts and decorate them in respect to their story of origin. Rationale This experience is significant to both the teacher and the students. All year one age pupils learn about indigenous dreaming stories and sophisticated beliefs, customs, and attitudes about creation. Little children understand that Australia is composed of numerous tribes and clans whose Dreaming stories vary even before joining primary education. Through the narration of dreaming histories by the young kids in the circles, they learn that people were different from animals, and this is exemplary manifest even in the current world. Human beings are ever celebrated and of high intelligence than animals. Prior to school age children need to study the different and distinguished ways of knowledge in a civilized manner. The aspect of educating children about cultural diversity results to formation of unique identities and shared experiences. The prior to school age children can remember all lessons about indigenous culture and through the narration of dreaming stories since this creates an imagination and visual outcome. Resources Atlas and map of Australia Drawing tools such as pencils, cardboard, glue, felt, and razor blade Moon board representing indigenous Australian cultures Arrange 4 to 5 chairs in a circle to form a group Chalks for class representation Use Microsoft Word to write a book that suits primary age students in year 1 Scruptures of animals, people, and indegenous plants Critical Reflections I have always believed that cultural heritage reflects the old ways of living built up by our ancestors, and has been being passed from one generation to another given to them because of their conception and birth. People of different tribes embrace cultural heritage across all their diversity in beliefs, ways of life, behaviors, and their rituals; which has also formed part of the reason why I feel indigenous people were different (Smith Wobst, 2004). These values were formed from my working with people of diverse cultural identity, my upbringing, and the little knowledge I gained after studying the Australian Aboriginal Culture Resource Book (Kitson Bowes, 2012). My feelings and interpretations after learning from these past experiences and education drove me to the belief that I should accept all people and embrace the diversity of all manner even when it is insignificant (Kitson Bowes, 2012). I think this was because of my ignorance. For one, how would I become a teacher of ki ndergarten children and teach them indigenous cultures, inclusive, and cultural identity variances while I did not understand the basics due to my ignorance?. From my experience, some communities look down upon or have prejudice on cultural heritages of the other tribes. As a teacher, I would educate the children that every tribe and community in Australia are equally important and their cultural heritage should be respected. I would further make students understand that it is important to protect their cultural materials, sacred and significant sites, and objects (Battiste, 2011). I am looking forward to visiting cultural heritage conferences on the indigenous history of Australia. I think this would form a solid starting point for me to learn about local indigenous cultural heritage records, as well as plans of enabling successful learning about local community cultural changes (Venn Quiggin, 2007). Indigenous education and perspectives on Australian cultural heritage of different communities are beneficial to the children (Smith Akagawa, 2008). From the knowledge gained in this unit, I have shaped an awareness that all children in Australia should have total access to their cultural identity and heritage (Battiste, 2011). I believe that children need to learn these aspects from the period they can understand and interpret events so that they may not lose their cultural identity in future (Logan, 2012). I have learned that for indigenous Australians, the land is the essence of all spirituality and this relationship and the spirit of Australia is core to the events that are significant to aboriginal children today. However, in the current world children have forgotten their cultural heritage and do not even understand the geographical boundaries that separate their communities (Rolfe Windle, 2003). Also, I have come to realize there are numerous importances of indigenous perspectives in the classroom for aboriginal children. To teach domestic students, I believe that one must understand their personal views first, with ultimate expectations (Greer, 2010). I believe that educators should know the proximate cultural identity, beliefs, history, and attitudes of the child in good detail. It is evident from my experience that educators require understanding the indigenous children and their families, with influence to land ownership, community development, cultural beliefs, and cultural identity (Logan, 2012). I believe that the manner in which children learn is determined by their cultural heritage upbringing as well as education systems that they undergo. Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders identified themselves through their relationship to others, their language, and land areas (Langton, Palmer, Rhea, 2014). Presently, children should define themselves through their words and stories which can be expressed through arts, religion, sports, family, and ritual ceremonies (Battiste, 2011). As a teacher of kindergarten children, I plan to use pupils from different communities, tribes, and origins to share their story of life as informed by their parents to the others to enhance recognition of cultural heritage. I think that setting high standards and expectations to empower pupils to celebrate their cultural heritages and identity will be a unique teaching approach. In Australian continent, we have over 600 clan groups who have distinct beliefs and cultures (McConaghy, 2000). For instance, I could do this by incorporating indigenous students connection to the land, sacred grounds, and ritual rites into a lesson. According to my observation, I have a feeling that there was still an extra need for further authentic indigenous education programs to be organized across all kindergarten schools (Miller, 2011). I believe that children require intensive learning to function in diverse communities. This has been a long journey of learning in this unit, EDU10005: Indigenous Education and Perspectives where I have gained detailed knowledge about authentic indigenous lesson plans. From this experience, I have learned that it is vital to respect the relationship between indigenous people with cultural heritage perspectives of land, sacred beliefs, and gender rights (Arthur, L 2013). Educators utilizing Australian culture; stories must know that these just believe and that are based on deceased ancestors. I think that taking the initiative to introduce all pupils to indigenous cultural heritage lessons and learning experiences require the teachers to show dedication and understanding of all cultural heritages in Australia. Children must be made to know that our ancestors owned different cultural identities when it came to land, a way of life, and property ownership (Baker, 2011). Finally, I value integrating all indigenous cultural heritage styles of learning, such as symbolic, visual, experimental learning, and hands-on learning. I incorporated all these approaches a step which resulted to multiple intelligence in the mental capability of the children (AITSL. 2014). References AITSL. (2014). Professional Standards for Teachers. Teacher Standards. Know the content and how to teach it. Standard 2.4. Arthur, L (2013). Documenting and Assessing Children's Learning. (p.288). Programming and Planning in Early Childhood Settings. 5th Ed. Australia: Cengage Learning. Baker, C. (2011).Foundations of bilingual education and bilingualism(Vol. 79). Multilingual matters. Retrieved from; https://books.google.co.ke/books?hl=enlr=id=HAwxBQAAQBAJoi=fndpg=P R6dq=educating+children+on+Indigenous+Cultural+Heritage+2011ots=TaBbZM YkeIsig=lw3yKhnEpKyXXqB6cxzJGprZ3M0redir_esc=y#v=onepageqf=false Battiste, M. (2011).Reclaiming indigenous voice and vision. UBC Press. Retrieved from: https://books.google.co.ke/books?hl=enlr=id=onnyhAHq7rMCoi=fndpg=PR5 dq=educating+children+on+Indigenous+Cultural+Heritage+2011ots=1dj4tHhKzJ sig=wj0pg4FWAO-cHtXYzaxbyeTuNQ4redir_esc=y#v=onepageqf=false Greer, S. (2010). Heritage and empowerment: community?based Indigenous cultural heritage in northern Australia.International Journal of Heritage Studies,16(1-2), 45-58. Retrieved from: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13527250903441754 Kitson, R., Bowes, J. (2012). Incorporating Indigenous ways of knowing in early education for Indigenous children. Australasian Journal Of Early Childhood, 35(4), 81-89. Australia: Macquarie University. Langton, M., Palmer, L., Rhea, Z. M. (2014). Community-oriented protected areas for indigenous peoples and local communities.Indigenous peoples, national parks, and protected areas: A new paradigm linking conservation, culture, and rights,84. Retrieved from: https://books.google.co.ke/books?hl=enlr=id=VGYIBAAAQBAJoi=fndpg=P A84dq=Australians+Indigenous+Cultural+Heritage+2014ots=p5HjvLlxA_sig=9 NCn25mG0Mp2ZeLu9fQiE-y7aMkredir_esc=y#v=onepageqf=false Logan, W. (2012). Cultural diversity, cultural heritage, and human rights: towards heritage management as a human rights-based cultural practice.International journal of heritage studies,18(3), 231-244. Retrieved from; https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1359183512454065 McConaghy, C. (2000).Rethinking Indigenous education: Culturalism, colonialism and the politics of knowing. Flaxton, Queensland: Post Pressed. Miller, M. (2011). Embedding Indigenous perspectives in the Early Childhood Curriculum Educating Young Children - Learning and teaching in early childhood years.Early Childhood Teachers Association 17(2), 37-39. Rolfe, J., Windle, J. (2003). Valuing the Protection of aboriginal cultural heritage sites. Retrieved from: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=416138 Smith, C., Wobst, H. M. (Eds.). (2004).Indigenous archaeology: decolonizing theory and practice. Routledge. Retrieved from: https://books.google.co.ke/books?hl=enlr=id=MylyVq_dMoICoi=fndpg=PP1 dq=Australian+Aboriginal+Culture+Resource+Bookots=rDRymSeg3Xsig=Iaxg Wxgp5sAsRv4J2qbO0S0rgnwredir_esc=y#v=onepageq=Australian%20Aborigina l%20Culture%20Resource%20Bookf=false Smith, L., Akagawa, N. (Eds.). (2008).Intangible heritage. Routledge. Retrieved from: https://books.google.co.ke/books?hl=enlr=id=5T99AgAAQBAJoi=fndpg=PR5 dq=Australians+Indigenous+Cultural+Heritageots=7ScOgv5- O9sig=rZtWnBJe6P4zAjGfHEJ7sbuk0Wwredir_esc=y#v=onepageq=Australian s%20Indigenous%20Cultural%20Heritagef=false Venn, T. J., Quiggin, J. (2007). Accommodating Indigenous cultural heritage values in resource assessment: Cape York Peninsula and the MurrayDarling Basin, Australia.Ecological Economics,61(2), 334-344. Retrieved from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800906001339
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
Ronald Reagan Truly, when Ronald Reagan took office in 1981, the world was changing; his presidency would be one that would set the tone for the coming decades. Reagan had high expectations for his term in office; his first, second, and third priorities were his economic plans. His presidency was a remarkable one, but scholars were and continue to be critical of his hands-off, macro-management of the government. President Reagan surrounded himself with some of the brightest minds in the country: James Baker III, George Shultz .. Often, these are the people who initiated these policy changes, while Reagan is the one who sold them to the country. But for all that he didnt participate in, Reagan had an extreme passion for foreign politics, despite being warned against it and the beginning of his term to focus on the economy and its continued downward slide. His passion showed in his dealings with the Soviet Union, especially after the rise. He was instrumental in the reduction of arms of the worlds s uperpowers and key in the resurgence, in the United States, of military spending. But, when it came to foreign policy, Reagan had very different views than his predecessors. Reagan did not believe in detente, he did not believe in appeasement, and he did not believe in the isolationist movement that had populated American thought for the better part of the 20th century. He believed that the United States had to defeat the Soviet Union on the grounds that communism was immoral and resulted in a freedomless society. The thawing of Soviet-American relations in the later Reagan years was due to a change in Soviet policy and Soviet leadership and not a drastic change in American policy under Reagan. Reagans views on the Soviet Union were in place long before he became president. He viewed the country as a true threat to the superiority of the United States in global politics and even as a threat to the autonomy of the country as a whole. There was a sense that the Soviet Union was on the move [from 1975 through 1979] and that the U.S. was at great risk if the momentum continued. Reagan felt that and communicated it. His speeches always conveyed this feeling; even before he was president. In 1962, as governor of California, Reagan described the Soviet Union as a single worldwide force dedicated to the destruction of free enterprise and the creation of a socialist state. Additionally, in a pre-election address to a club in London, he remarked, Status quo; thats Latin for the mess were in, referring to the current foreign relations strategy supported by the United States. Journalists called the speech a strong attack on Western weakness. The feeling was apparently mutual. The Soviets, before Mikhail Gorbachev, often refused to meet with the Reagan. In fact, the Kremlin viewed Reagan as a dangerously confrontational figure, whose deeply disturbing animus against all things Russian had created a solid front of hostility among Politburo leaders. Reagans firm stance against communism and those related to it is likely what caused this deep rift in Soviet/U.S. relations at the beginning of the Reagan administration. The Soviet ambassador called it the lowest point since World War II when he spoke to the President early in 1983. Reagan main defense of his opinion is that communism oppresses freedom; in his first inauguration speech, he laid the groundwork for his campaign against communism on that basis. Additionally, Reagan disagreed almost totally with the idea of detente, or at least he disagreed with the detente as it was . While he thought the idea of detente was possible, he believed that it was largely unsuccessful when dealing with the Soviets. Previous administrations had used economic aid and trade agreements with Russia to attempt to obtain concessions on limited arms. Under Reagan, virtually all aid was discontinued to Russia in the attempt of making it more difficult for the Soviet Union to continue increase its armament level. Reagan justified this change in strategy by pointing out the failure of the SALT II treaty proposed by his predecessor, Jimmy Carter. While the motives of the SALT II treaty were well-founded, Congress failed to ratify it. In addition to cutting off aid